London has a long history of shopping and retail; from the medieval stalls on the previous London Bridge to Ice Fairs on the frozen River Thames up to relocated wholesale commodity markets, superstores and prosperous high streets which are under pressure.
It is anticipated that project people for this sector are not so much interested in shopping itself but in the means of shopping.
- Westfield East;
- Westfield West at White City;
- Brent Cross;
- Bicester Village
- and provincial town centres.
- Burlington Arcade off Piccadilly;
- Royal Opera Arcade, St. James;
- Royal Arcade, Old Bond Street, W1S 4SL;
- Leadenhall Market, Gracechurch Street, EC3V 1LT;
- Jermyn Street for shirt makers;
- Saville Row for tailoring;
- Denmark Street and Charing Cross Road for musical instruments and books including Foyles and antique books;
- Carnaby Street for Swinging 60s and for tacky to trendy;
London also has specialist shops of every conceivable type – coins, stamps, models, uniforms and militaria, food, wine, confectionary, umbrellas, etc. such as James Smith and Sons, established 1830, for umbrellas and sticks at 53 New Oxford Street, WC1A 1BL.
- Fortnum and Mason,
- John Lewis,
- Marks and Spencer,
- and more
- New Billingsgate – for fish from 1982 at Isle of Dogs;
- New Covent Garden in Nine Elms(Fruit, vegetables and flowers);
- Smithfield / Central London Markets at Farringdon, EC1M (meat and poultry);
- Columbia Market (flowers and plants);
- Borough Market, SE1 1TL – wholesale and retail food market since 12th century;
- Caledonian Road Market in Market Road for animals – discontinued after WW2;
- Bermondsey (New Caledonian) Market: Shepherd Market, W1, access via Curzon Street;
- Borough Market – a food market founded by the Romans and on its current location for over 250 years;
- Berwick Street Market in Soho;
- Columbia Market; Portobello Road – antiques plus;
- Petticoat Lane on Middlesex Street;
- Spitalfields is a former London Fruit Exchange now a flea market and food court.
There are also Street Food in markets, Farmers’ Markets, antique fairs and car boot sales.
Retail shopping and wholesale arrangements are being modified by purchasing options of mail order, by phone and by internet.
Historical Commodity Markets include: Stock Market; Metals Market; Timber; Coal; Beer and Brewing; Baltic Exchange – destroyed by IRA Bomb in 1992 – now 30 St Mary Axe – “the Gherkin”.